Richard C. Overbaugh
Lynn Schultz
Old Dominion University

Bloom's Taxonomy

New Bloom Triangle

New Version

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During the 1990's a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom), updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance to 21st century work. The two graphics show the revised and original Taxonomy. Note the change from nouns to verbs associated with each level.

Note that the top two levels are essentially exchanged from the traditional to the new version.

Old Bloom Triangle

Old Version

Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information? define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state
Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write.

Some very useful sites:

Kathy Shrock's "Google Tools to Support Bloom's Revised Taxomy"

Bloom's Digital Taxonomy by Andrew Churches. This is a greally great site about how to use many different tools to enable or enhance the process of teaching students at the various levels of Bloom.

A Model of Learning Objectives. This kind of a neat site created by Rex Heer at ISU that presents a "rolloverable" 3d represententaion of the new 4 X 6 Taxonomy. "Rollovers" pop up simple examples of Learning Objectives. The taxonomy is also explained and links provided for even more useful resources