NOTETAKING GUIDES: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
- Involves valuing, establishing a foundational rationale; the theoretical aspects of curriculum work.
- The actual engineering and construction of the curriculum.
What are the components used to assist us in Curriculum Development?
- Two general classifications of models for curriculum development -
The Technical-Scientific Models
- A way of planning curricula to optimize students' learning and to allow them to increase their output.
- A plan for structuring the learning environment and coordinating the elements of personnel, materials, and equipment.
- A complex unity of parts organized to serve a common function.
- These curriculum developers:
- use a rational approach to accomplishing tasks.
- believe that it is possible to outline systematically the procedures that will facilitate the creation of curricula.
- Employ a means-end paradigm that suggests the more rigorous the means, the more likely the desired results.
- indicate that a systematically designed program can be evaluated.
- Franklin Bobbit
- First task of curriculum development is to discover the activities which ought to make up the lives of students . . . the abilities and personal qualities necessary for proper performance.
- The analysis should address the actual activities of humans.
- Developing a curriculum is essentially like planning the route that a person must travel from infancy to the goals of his/her growth, culture, and special abilities.
- W. W. Charters
- Suggested a sequence of steps for curriculum construction:
- Selecting objectives
- Dividing them into ideals and activities
- Analyzing them to the limits of working units
- Collecting methods of achievement
- Ralph Tyler --
- Filter subject matter through
- The philosophy of the school
- The psychology of learning
- Hilda Taba
- Believed that teachers should participate in developing the curriculum
- Her 7-step grass-roots model:
- Diagnose the needs
- Formulation of objectives
- Selection of content
- Organization of content
- Selection of learning experiences
- Organization of learning activities
- Evaluation and means of evaluation.
- Saylor and Alexander
- Stress the subjective, personal, aesthetic, heuristic, and transactional.
- Stress the learner through activity-oriented approaches to teaching and learning.
- Curriculum evolves rather than being planned.
- The persons most involved with the curriculum (learners) are involved in the planning.
- Focuses on individual's self-perceptions and personal preferences, their own assessments of self-needs, and their attempts at self-integration.
Glatthorn: Naturalistic Model
- Assess the alternatives
- Stake out the territory
- Develop a constituency
- Build the knowledge base
- Block in the unit
- Plan quality learning experiences
- Develop the course examination
- Develop the learning scenarios
Weistein and Fantini's Humanistic Model
Summary of Curriculum Development Approaches
- Technical Scientific
- Major steps can be identified, managed
- Curriculum development has high degree of objectivity, logic
- Curriculum development is rational
- Curriculum development involves key decision points
- Curriculum development is subjective, personal, aesthetic, and transactional
- Curriculum development relies on intuitive forces
- Curriculum development is a dynamic process fraught with much uncertainty
Ritz Model - Technical
- Curriculum Foundation
- Content Source
- Content Structure
- Curriculum Content
- Unit Goals
- Curriculum Evaluation
- Content Evaluation
- Document Validation
- Content -- Knowledge, skills, attitudes that enable learners to gain understanding and to apply that understanding to daily life -- present and anticipated.
- Content Organization --
- Logical -- according to rules and concepts
- Psychological -- concrete content then the more abstract
- Optimal in terms of learners learning the content
- Allow learners to develop thinking skills and rational powers
- Stimulating learners to greater understanding
- Fostering in learners an openness to new experiences and tolerance for diversity
- Facilitate and learning and motivate learners to continue learning
- Allow learners to address their needs
- Allow learners to broaden their interests
- Fosters the total development of learners in cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains
Summary - Curriculum Development
- Focus is on selecting and arranging goals, objective, content, activities, and materials.
- Developers usually employ a technical approach to the engineering and construction of the curriculum.
- Philosophy, psychology, and sociology assists us to design the foundations from which the content and structure arise.
- It is not a hard job after you establish the foundational rationale.
- Good Luck!!!